The name Quartz is of German origin first used in 1530 by the German Humanist Georgius Agricola. Quartz is a hard, transparent trigonal mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. After Feldspar, it is the most abundant mineral on the surface of the earth. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end. The molecular formula of Quartz is SiO2, and the crystal structure is hexagonal. It indicates that Quartz is made of the elements silicon and oxygen. It exists as a component of metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks. Quartz develops positive and negative charges when subjected to any tension.
The countries that are the main manufacturers of Quartz in the world are; China, Japan, and Russia.
α-Quartz and the high-temperature β-Quartz are the two occurrences of the Quartz stone. It is available in numerous varieties. Some crystalline forms of Quartz such as citrine, rose quartz, smoky Quartz, milky Quartz and amethyst, are considered gemstones. The rock crystal or the clear Quartz is called pure Quartz because it is colorless and transparent. The Varied Smoky Quartz is the brown smoky variety of Quartz; impurities are the reason for the extensive range of colors.
The main varieties of crystalline Quartz are described below:
- Amethyst: Amethyst is a well-known mineral and gemstone. The world’s best amethyst deposits are usually found in the fractures and cavities of igneous rocks. Amethyst is the most popular and valuable Quartz gemstone of all time because of its attractive purple color. Amethyst exists in a different range of colors like reddish-purple, purple, or violets purple.
- Citrine: The name citrine is of French origin and is very rare in nature. Citrine exists in a different range of colors like yellow, orange and reddish-brown. Its attractive color, durability and affordability make it the most in-demand gemstone. Citrine is also called Lemon Quartz because of its lemon yellow color.
- Smoky Quartz: Smoky Quartz is a color variety of crystalline Quartz. It ranges in color from pale, smoky grey to deep brown and black, sometimes even yellowish-brown. The main highlight of this gemstone is its beautiful transparency that draws light into shades of black and brown. It is found in several locations across the globe.
- Rose Quartz: The color is usually soft ranging from very light pink to medium pink. Hence, it is represented as the ultimate symbol of love or as the love stone. Rose quartz is a name used for specimens of Quartz with a pink color. Rose Quartz is milky or hazy, and it is a very common mineral found in many locations.
- Rock Crystal: The rock crystal is a transparent variety of the silica mineral Quartz, free of any impurities. It valued for its high clarity. It is a popular ornamental stone and is also used as a gemstone.
- Milky Quartz: Milk Quartz (milky Quartz) is a well-known variety of crystalline Quartz. The pure white translucent color is from minute fluids that had been trapped during the process of formation.
- Rutilated Quartz: Rutilated Quartz is a transparent Quartz with golden yellow Rutile. It is called Venus’s hair stone because of its fine golden hairs. This type of Quartz is found in a large number of locations throughout the world.
- Ametrine: Ametrine is a natural transparent, bicolored Quartz gemstone that contains purple and orange color bands. Most of the world’s supply of natural ametrine comes from Bolivia.